Geology, Hydrogeology, Groundwater and Water Conservation
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  • Hydrogeological investigation - Hydro-geological investigations in relation to water resources are often the initial and preliminary work that provide inside and greater understanding into a new area being reviewed for water resources. Work includes planning and collection of existing data into developing a conceptual model of the hydro-geology of the particular area. Actual field investigations includes.

    Geological Reconnaissance - A comprehensive collection of geological maps, reports and historical data like non pumping water levels, Chemical analysis, Aquifer data, rainfall etc allows us to efficiently identify potential water bearing structures for detailed investigations.

    Groundwater Condition - Based on various Field survey Groundwater contouring was done by using Software’s to identify regional as well as local groundwater flow direction and delineate contaminants pathways.

    Well Inventory - It includes collection of information of existing ground water extraction structures in the area like Non pumping water levels, Aquifer type, Yield etc.

    Global Positioning of Groundwater Wells - In this longitude & latitude of groundwater well is determined using GPS.
  • Aquifer characteristics and test - HAquifer test is done to known the discharge and drawdown capacity of the aquifer. This is done to understand different parameter intake capacity of well on the basis of the suggesting number if percolation well in the area

    Type of Aquifer Test - Pumping test is conducted to evaluate an aquifer by "stimulating" the aquifer through constant pumping and observing the aquifer's "response" in observation wells. Aquifer testing is a common tool that is used to characterize a system of aquifers.

    Aquifer Performance Testing - Aquifer performance tests consist of pumping a high-capacity well and measuring the drawdown produced within the aquifer. These tests are used to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and evaluate the maximum allowable pumping rate of production wells. Groundwater samples are collected during the tests to ensure compliance with the drinking water standards.

    A minimum of one observation well is monitored and the production well is discharged at, or above, the new well's desired pumping rate. Drawdown is measured within the production well and the observation wells using water level indicator. The drawdown data is analyzed using the latest software.

    Slug test - A slug test is a variation on the typical aquifer test where an instantaneous change (increase or decrease) is made, and the effects are observed in the same well. This is often used in geotechnical or engineering settings to get a quick estimate (minutes instead of days) of the aquifer properties immediately around the well.

    Step draw down test - In a step-drawdown test the well is initially pumped at a low constant rate until the drawdown within the well stabilizes, i.e. until a steady state is reached. The pumping rate is then increased to a higher constant rate and the well is pumped until the drawdown stabilizes once more. This process is repeated through at least three steps, which should be of equal duration (say, a few hours each). A well and aquifer losses the drawdown in a pumped well consists of two components: the aquifer losses and the well losses. Aquifer losses are the head losses that occur in the aquifer where the flow is laminar. They are time-dependent and vary linearly with the well discharge.
  • Geological and Geomorphic analysis - Geological and Geomorphic analysis includes Identification of Topography, lithology, drainage pattern, water bodies and Structural features of the area. Secondary data like recent Google imageries, District Resource Map, information published by GSI also collected to study the basic information of Geological conditions of the region.
  • Groundwater monitoring - Groundwater monitoring involves, the continuous monitoring of production, water quality and water levels in water wells. With the help of monitoring we can determine the annual and long term changes in groundwater storage, estimate recharge rate and can also determine the direction and gradient of groundwater flow. Hence proper design & identification of monitoring wells is very necessary. Beside that groundwater monitoring is also a mandatory conditions for industries having MOEF and CGWA clearance.
  • Rainwater harvesting - Rainwater harvesting is the technique of collection of rainwater at surface or in subsurface aquifer, before it is lost as surface run-off. The augment resource can be harvested in the time of need. Artificial recharge to groundwater is a process by which the groundwater reservoir is augmented at rate exceeding that under natural condition of replenishment


  • To overcome the inadequacy of waters to meet our demands
  • To arrest decline in groundwater levels
  • To enhance availability of groundwater at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development
  • To increase infiltration of rain water in the subsoil which has decreased drastically in urban areas due to paving of open area
  • To improve groundwater quality by dilution
  • To increase agriculture production
  • To improve ecology of the area by increase in vegetation cover etc.

Advantages of Rainwater harvesting:

There are various advantages of Rain Water recharging from which some of those are listed below:

  • Groundwater is not directly exposed to evaporation and pollution
  • The aquifer serves as distribution system also
  • Mitigates the effects of drought
  • Effective rise in ground water levels
  • It’s economical and energy saving as it prevents extraction of water from depleting ground water table
  • Reduce soil erosion
  • It reduces flood hazards
  • Storing water underground is environmental friendly

Methods and Technique

The methods of groundwater recharge mainly are:

Urban areas

Roof top rainwater/Strom run off harvesting through

  • Recharge Pit
  • Recharge trench
  • Tube well
  • Recharge wel

Rural areas

Rainwater Harvesting through

  • Gully Plug
  • Contour band
  • Gabion Structure
  • Percolation Tank
  • Check Dam / Cement Plug / Nala Bund
  • Recharge Shaft
  • Dug well Recharge
  • Groundwater Dams / Subsurface Dyke

CGWA Clearance

The annual replenishable ground water resources availability plays an important role in defining the guidelines. The latest assessment of the state wise ground water resources as on 31.03.2009 is available at the Central Ground Water Board web site ( As per the ground water resource estimates of 2009, out of the 5842 assessment units (Blocks, Mandals, Talukas, districts), 802 over-exploited units, 169 critical units, 523 semi-critical units, 4277 safe units and 71 saline units have been identified across the country by Central Ground Water Board. The Annual replenishable ground water resources have been estimated as 431 Billion Cubic Meters (bcm). The Net Ground Water Availability is 396 bcm and the overall stage of ground water development of the country is 61%.

Therefore, prior permission/NOC from CGWA has to be obtained before construction of any Groundwater abstraction structure viz. Tube wells, Bore wells, Dug wells etc.

Kadam can offers its client the following services:

  • Examining the area of the groundwater against availability
  • Water requirement
  • Availability of aquifer
  • A Shallow aquifer
  • B Deeper aquifer
  • Status of the groundwater development of the area
  • Preparation of proposal for augmentation of groundwater abstraction
  • Preparation and implementation of water conservation measures
  • Facilitation for obtaining NOC from CGWA, New Delhi

(Note: Please contact for service-specific list of clients)